Caracterización de poblaciones de vid silvestre de la Península Ibérica

  1. Alejandro Benito Barba
Supervised by:
  1. Rosa Adela Arroyo García Director
  2. Félix Cabello Sáenz de Santa María Director

Defence university: Universidad Politécnica de Madrid

Year of defence: 2016

Committee:
  1. María Ángeles Mendiola Ubillos Chair
  2. María Dolores Sánchez Yelamo Secretary
  3. Juan Mariano Cabellos Caballero Committee member
  4. Fernando Martínez de Toda Fernández Committee member
  5. Leonor Ruiz García Committee member

Type: Thesis

Abstract

The wild grapevine is considered an autochthonous relative of cultivated vines and a huge gene pool endangered in Europe. Prospecting carried out between 2003 and 2004 enabled to inventory 51 Spanish sites with wild grapevines, most of them located near rivers. These individuals were grafted in the collection of “El Encín” (BGVCAM - Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain). Firstly, werw characterized the amount and distribution of their genetic diversity using 25 nuclear SSR loci. We have also analysed the possible coexistence in the natural habitat of wild grapevines with naturalized grapevine cultivars and rootstocks. In this way, phenotypic and genetic analyses identified 19% of the collected samples as derived from cultivated genotypes, being either naturalized cultivars or hybrid genotypes derived from spontaneous crosses between wild and cultivated grapevines. The genetic diversity of wild grapevine populations was similar than that observed in the cultivated group. The molecular analysis showed that cultivated germplasm and wild germplasm are genetically divergent with low level of introgression. We identified four genetic groups, with two of them fundamentally represented among cultivated genotypes and two among wild accessions. The analyses of genetic relationships between wild and cultivated grapevines could suggest a genetic contribution of wild accessions from Spain to current Western cultivars. Secondly, a morphological study was done “ex situ” and were compared with data from 182 Spanish commercial cultivars grown in the same collection. All wild individuals showed morphological differences with Vitis vinifera L. ssp. vinifera but no significant differences were found within Vitis vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris neither by geographic origin nor by sex. A pattern with the main characteristics of Spanish wild grapevines is suggested. Ultimately, were investigated the anthocyanin composition of 21 mostly Spanish wild grapevine acces-sions preserved at BGVCAM “El Encín” and selected in consideration of observed ampelographic dif-ferences and molecular characterization. The anthocyanin composition was similar to that found in winegrape cultivars. The accessions studied showed considerable variability in their anthocyanin fingerprints and it was possible to distinguish several groups, similar to previous reports on the anthocyanin fingerprint of winegrapes. The anthocyanin composition of wild grapevine accessions was similar to that of cultivated grapes. Nevertheless, the presence of wild accessions with anthocyanin finger¬prints uncommon or nonexistent in Spanish cultivated varieties suggests that the genetic variability related to anthocyanins in Spanish wild grapevine populations may be higher than that of cultivated varieties commonly considered of Spanish origin.